Singapore
(External Examiner)
———————————————
SEOW HENG FONG, PhD
Professor and Deputy Dean
School of Graduate Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia

Date: 26 February 2013
This thesis was submitted to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia and has been accepted as fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The members of the Supervisory Committee were as follows:
Sarvinder Kaur Sandhu, PhD
Senior Lecture
Faculty of Human Ecology
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Chairman)
Jayum Anak Jawan, PhD
Professor  
Faculty of Human Ecology
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Member)
Zaid B. Ahmad, PhD
Associate professor
Faculty of Human Ecology
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Member)
BUJANG BIN KIM HUAT, PhD
Professor and Dean
School of Graduate Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Date:
DECLARATION
I declare that the thesis is my original work except for quotations and citations which have been duly acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been previously, and is not concurrently, submitted for any other degree at Universiti Putra Malaysia or at any other institution.
___________________________________
SEYED MOHSEN MIRHOSSEINI
Date: 13 December 2012
TABLE OF CONTENT
Page
ABSTRACT iii
ABSTRAK vii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x
APPROVAL xi
DECLARATIONxiii
TABLE OF CONTENTxiv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSxxi
CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION1
1.1 Introduction1
1.2 Background of the Study2
1.2.1 The Importance of the Persian Gulf Geopolitics3
1.2.2 U.S. attempts to build a security system for the Persian Gulf 8 8
1.2.3 Feature of the region after U.S. attack of Iraq10
1.3 Problem statement12
1.4 Research aims and Objectives13
1.5 Research questions14
1.6 Significance of the study14
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study18
1.8 Theoretical Framework19
1.9 Definition of Terms24
1.9.1 Regional security24
1.9.2 Regional Security Complex (RSC)25
1.9.3 Balance of Power26
1.9.4 Persian Gulf27
1.9.5 Arab Gulf27
1.9.6 Unofficial policy28
1.9.7 Regime29
1.10 Methodology29
1.10.1 Research data collection methods30
1.10.2 Research Designs and Methods31
1.10.3 Sources of available Data31
1.10.4 Techniques for collecting and analyzing data32
2 LITERATURE REVIEW34
2.1 Introduction34
2.2 Regional security36
2.3 Evolving of the Persian Gulf Security Regimes47
2.4 Alternative Security Frameworks for the Persian Gulf56
2.5 Iran’s Persian Gulf policy64
2.6 Conclusion67
3 THE EVOLUTION OF THE U.S. POLICIES TOWARDS IRAN 69
3.1 Introduction69
3.2 Background70
3.3 The Geography and Geopolitics of the Persian Gulf71
3.3.1 The Persian Gulf Geographic Confines73
3.3.2 Geopolitics of the Persian Gulf75
3.3.3 Local Geography76
3.3.4 Classification of the Persian Gulf states79
3.4 Great Britain’s presence in the Persian Gulf80
3.5 British withdrawal from Persian Gulf81
3.5.1 The American reactions to British withdrawal83
3.5.2 Regional states reactions regarding British withdrawal84
3.6 American arrival in the Persian Gulf85
3.6.1 American policy objectives in Iran86
3.6.2 The U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf88
3.6.3 Reasons of American indirect presence after Britain withdrawal90
3.7 The policy of Twin pillar by Nixon administration92
3.7.1 Areas of cooperation between Iran and US99
3.7.2 US military assistance to Iran101
3.8 Carter Doctrine104
3.8.1 USCENTCOM in the Persian Gulf region109
3.9 The policy of Dual containment (the policy of Clinton’s administration – Clinton’s Doctrine)111
3.9.1 Basic codes of the dual containment policy114
3.9.2 Factors of supporting Dual Containment Policy115

3.9.3 Implementation of the Dual containment policy toward Iran117
3.9.4 Implementation of the Dual containment policy toward Iraq119
3.10 Establishment of the [Persian] Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)121
3.10.1 Introduction121
3.10.2 Previous Efforts for cooperation and alliance121
3.10.3 Declared and undeclared objectives of the GCC123
3.10.4 The main concerns of GCC states regarding the Islamic Republic of Iran125
3.10.5 Interaction between the GCC states and the U.S.127
3.10.7 Military abilities of the GCC state130
3.10.8 A turning point at Doha summit133
3.11 Conclusion135

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اینجا کلیک کنید

4 EVALUATION OF THE U.S. POLICIES IN PERSIAN GULF 136
4.1 Introduction136
4.2 Evaluation of the “Twin Pillars Policy”137
4.3 Evaluation of the “Carter Doctrine”139
4.4 Evaluation of the Regan Doctrine143
4.5 Evaluation of the “George Herbert Walker Bush” Policy146
4.6 Evaluation of the “Dual Containment Policy”149
4.6.1Evaluating the methods of containment158
4.7 Evaluation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) policy159
4.8 evaluation of George W. Bush Policy165
4.9 Islamic Republic of Iran’s Policies towards the United States174
4.9.1 The Khatami phenomenon and Iran’s foreign policy177
4.10 Conclusion180
5 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS182
5.1 Introduction182
5.2 Securing the Persian Gulf as a neo-conservative thought183
5.3 Schools of Thought about Iran184
5.4 The Persian Gulf Remains as the World’s Energy Supply185
5.5 Dilemmas in U.S. Persian Gulf Policies187
5.6 Regional Security Structures as Possible Options192
5.6.1 Potential Models (samples) for the Persian Gulf195
5.6.2 Parameters of Formulating a New Security Structure for the Region 197
5.6.3 Essential pre-structure for Security building in the Persian Gulf region 198
5.7 Interaction of the GCC Regarding Iran199
5.7.1 GCC and the Iran-Iraq War203
5.7.2 The difficulties facing GCC states204
5.7.3 The American Congress and weapons sales to the GCC 205
5.8 Sources of Conflict in the Persian Gulf Region: Penetration and Resistance 207
5.9 Oil is the main interest but not the unique interest208
5.10 Major Problem Regarding the U.S. in the Persian Gulf209
5.11 Conclusion214
6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 215
6.1 Introduction215
6.2 Summary215
6.3 Conclusion219
6.3.1 GCC needs a new security arrangement220
6.3.2 Mutual understanding of the U.S. and Iran223
6.3.3 Disengaging from the region225
6.3.4 The New Regional Security Arrangement227
6.4 Implications (theory and practice)232
6.5 Recommendation for future research234
REFERENCES236
BIODATA OF STUDENT254
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS255
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1: World Conventional Oil Production 6
2: the United States oil imports 76
3: Past Challenges to U.S. Interests in the Gulf 89
4:U.S. MilitaryAssistance to Iran, 1965-1973 101
5: GNP & military expenditures of Iran (1968-1980) 102
6: NATO Contribution of Air forces in Desert Storm 213
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1: The Middle East & Persian Gulf region 2
2: Distribution of global Oil Reserves. (EIA, 2009) 5
3: Regional Security Complex Theory 23
4: Allied Participation in Coalition Operations 213
5: Sorties Flown in Operation Allied Force and Operation Deliberate Force 214

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ASEAN: the Association of Southeast Asian Nation
ARF: ASEAN [the Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Regional Forum
BMDS: Ballistic Missile Defense System
CENTO: Central Treaty Organization
DOD: Department of Defense (America)
EIA: Energy Information Administration
G6: Group six including five permanent members of the United Nation’s Security Council (America, Russia China, Britain, France) plus Germany
GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
GOIC: Gulf Organization for Industrial Consultancy
GRSF: [Persian] Gulf Regional Security Forum
I.R.IRAN: the Islamic Republic of Iran
IAEA: the International Atomic Energy Agency
ILSA: the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996
INP: Iran’s Nuclear Program
ICO: Islamic Conference Organization
ISA: Iran Sanctions Act
NAM: Non Aligned Movement

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